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Bitrate-Intolerant CAN Bus

Problem: The host-side CAN-interface sends an error-frame for every CAN packet sent by the Ethernet-Mux.

The CAN-Bus protocol is designed to allow bitrate offsets of a few percent between bus nodes. This is especially relevant when a bus contains nodes without precise crystal-based clock sources. Synchronization is performed on the receiving side of a CAN-frame by monitoring the actual and expected timing of bit transitions seen on the bus, and adjusting the bit-sampling of subsequent bits accordingly.

The generation of CAN-timings is based on a base clock, that is sub-divided using counters, to determine the sample points for reception and the signal transition points for sending. These counter timings make use of units of time called time quanta tq, on Linux these time quanta are given in nanoseconds.

One parameter that is specified in terms of time quanta is the synchronization jump width (sjw), a parameter determining the maximum amount of bitrate synchronization performed during reception of a CAN-frame. Currently SocketCAN initializes every device with a synchronization jump width (sjw) of 1 time quantum.

As the length of a time quantum tq varies widely between different CAN-controllers this results in maximum amount of bitrate-synchronization performed by default also varying widely between CAN-controllers. On some CAN-controllers the amount of synchronization allowed by the default setup is not sufficient to use LXA IOBus devices, leading to frames being rejected by the CAN-controller.

Solution: Use a sjw relative the other bit-timings instead of a fixed value of 1.

LXA IOBus devices are tested at a sjw of 5% of one bit-time. To determine the current bit-timings the can0 interface should first be configured to the desired bitrate of 100.000 bit/s, e.g. by using systemd-networkd. The resulting bit timings are calculated automatically by the Linux kernel and can then be displayed using the ip command:

$ ip --details link show can0
5: can0: <NOARP,UP,LOWER_UP,ECHO> mtu 16 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP mode DEFAULT group default qlen 10
  link/can  promiscuity 0 minmtu 0 maxmtu 0
  can state ERROR-PASSIVE (berr-counter tx 128 rx 0) restart-ms 100
    bitrate 100000 sample-point 0.875
    tq 50 prop-seg 87 phase-seg1 87 phase-seg2 25 sjw 1
    peak_canfd: tseg1 1..256 tseg2 1..128 sjw 1..128 brp 1..1024 brp-inc 1
    peak_canfd: dtseg1 1..32 dtseg2 1..16 dsjw 1..16 dbrp 1..1024 dbrp-inc 1
    clock 80000000 numtxqueues 1 numrxqueues 1 gso_max_size 65536 gso_max_segs 65535

Shown in line 6 are the timing-parameters tq, prop-seg, phase-seg1, phase-seg2 and sjw. One bit-time consists of 1 + prop-seg + phase-seg1 + phase-seg2 time quanta. The sjw should thus be adjusted to a value of sjw = ⌊0.05 * (1 + prop-seg + phase-seg1 + phase-seg2)⌋ = 10.

The interface can be re-configured accordingly using the command:

$ ip link set can0 type can tq 50 prop-seg 87 phase-seg1 87 phase-seg2 25 sjw 10


All other values but sjw are copied from the status output above.